Top 10 most expensive countries to buy a property

The housing market is subject to various housing and social state policies that affect people’s decisions about buying a house. Moreover, the market is also closely related to the banking sector and its lending activity, considering that most of the investments in immovable properties are made through loans, thus changes to the interest rate can have an impact on the entire construction sector. On the other side, changes to the price of immovable properties have a key role in the decisions taken by central banks all over the world. So, these two sectors depend on each other and influence each… Continue reading

The Black Litterman model: how to use it

The Black Litterman model was developed in 1990 at Goldman Sachs by Fischer Black and Robert Litterman and published in 1992. It is a sophisticated portfolio construction method that overcomes the problem of unintuitive, highly-concentrated portfolios, input-sensitivity, and estimation error maximization, in applying modern portfolio theory in practice. The model uses a Bayesian approach to combine the subjective views of an investor regarding the expected returns of one or more assets with the market equilibrium vector of expected returns to form a new, mixed estimate of expected returns. The resulting new vector of returns leads to intuitive portfolios with sensible… Continue reading

The modern portfolio theory: how to use it

Modern portfolio theory (MPT) or mean-variance model was developed by Harry Markowitz and published in 1952 by the Journal of Finance. It is an investing model that enables risk-averse investors to maximize returns for a given amount of risk or minimize the risk for a given amount of returns. For developing the MPT he was later awarded a Nobel prize. The risk of every investing portfolio returns has two components: systematic risk and unsystematic risk. The first is the market risks that cannot be diversified away. The second the specific risk of a stock and can be diversified away by… Continue reading

How to use Fundamental Analysis for trading stocks

Investing in the stock markets is not simple and it is risky, but in the other side there are many opportunities to make money by investing. Before investing in stocks, it is necessary to create a solid financial plan, to determine the risk profile, to analyze the stocks, to create an optimal portfolio etc. One of the best methods to analyses the stocks is the fundamental analysis. It assesses the intrinsic value of a security by analyzing various macroeconomic and microeconomic factors. The ultimate goal of fundamental analysis is to quantify the intrinsic value of a security. Its intrinsic value… Continue reading

Pension funds guide for beginners

A pension fund is any plan, fund, or scheme which provides retirement income and it is one of the most vital pieces of your long-term financial plan. Pension funds are pooled monetary contributions from pension plans set up by employers, unions, or other organizations to provide for their employees’ or members’ retirement benefits. They typically have large amounts of money to invest and dominate the stock markets where they invest. The pension fund is the best way to save for your future needs, so taking an early interest in pension planning will ensure that you are able to maintain your… Continue reading